Phonics in the Early Years Foundation Stage and Key Stage 1
The school’s phonics programme is based on ‘Letters and Sounds’ (resources from the Department for Education and Skills) and Jolly Phonics. These resources provide a structured scheme to support teachers and teaching assistants in delivering high quality synthetic phonics across the Early Years Foundation Stage, Key Stage One and early Key Stage Two.
Letters and Sounds Phases 1-6:
Letters and Sounds is built around 6 phases, enabling children to progress at an individual level. Letters and Sounds should be taught daily for approximately fifteen minute pure phonics teaching time. Children entering school should begin working within Phase One.
Teachers and Teaching assistants should carry out regular assessments to ensure children are making progress and set challenging targets throughout the programme. Phases 1-6 are progressive and children should move through the phases at an appropriate pace.
Aspect 1: General sound discrimination- environmental sounds
Aspect 2: General sound discrimination- Instrumental sounds
Aspect 3: General sound discrimination- body percussion
Aspect 4: Rhythm and rhyme
Aspect 5: Alliteration
Aspect 6: Voice sounds
Aspect 7: Oral blending and segmenting
-Tuning into sounds (auditory discrimination)
-Listening and remembering sounds (auditory memory and sequencing)
-Talking about sounds (developing vocabulary and language comprehension)
Enlarge their vocabulary
Speak confidently to adults and other children
Reproduce audibly the phonemes they hear, in order, all through the word.
Use sound-talk to segment words into phonemes.
Children entering school will have experienced a wealth of listening activities, including songs, stories and rhymes. They will be able to distinguish between speech sounds and many will be able to blend and segment words orally.
Every child entering Reception will progress to Phase 2.
The purpose of Phase Two is to:
Set 1: s a t p
Set 2: i n m d
Set 3: g o c k
Set 4: ck e u r
Set 5: h b f ff l ll ss
Children entering Phase Three will know around 19 letters and be able to blend phonemes to read VC and segment VC words to spell.
The purpose of Phase Three:
Set 6: j v w x
Set 7: y z zz qu
Children entering Phase Four will be able to represent each of 42 phonemes by a grapheme and be able to blend and read CVC words and segment for spelling.
The purpose of Phase Four:
Children entering Phase Five are able to read and spell words containing adjacent consonants and some polysyllabic words.
The purpose of Phase Five:
Children should know most of the common grapheme- phoneme correspondences. They should be able to read hundreds of words, doing this in three ways:
The School’s phonics programme aims to:
In the EYFS and Key Stage One:
Hearing the sound
Saying the sound
Making the sound through actions
Throughout Phases 1-3 the main focus of each lesson is to help pupils identify and count the number of sounds in each word and then write down these sounds in order. Phases 3-6 build on children’s knowledge and focus on graphemes.
Lessons also focus on letter formation and handwriting.
Pupils are given lots of practice in identifying first, last and middle sounds from a sequence of sounds before phonemes are introduced. For example, various combinations of claps, whistles, hoots. When sequencing skills have been acquired, pupils move onto identifying phonemes, reproducing them and encoding them as their commonest graphemes.
Pupils are given extensive practice in breaking words up into their phonemes. For example ‘cat’ is segmented c / a / t
Blending is running phonemes back together to form words.
Segmenting and blending are both essential skills in reading and writing text.
Appendix Jolly Phonics Actions
s Weave hand in a s shape like a snake, and say ssssss
a Wiggle fingers above elbow as if ants crawling on you, say aaa
t Turn head from side to side as if watching tennis and say t,t,t
i Pretend to be a mouse by wriggling fingers at end of nose and squeak i,i,i
p Pretend to puff out candles saying p,p,p
n Make a noise, as if you are a plane- hold out arms and say nnnn
ck Raise hands and snap fingers as if playing castanets ck,ck,ck
e Pretend to tap an egg on the side of a pan and crack it saying eh,eh,eh
h Hold hands in front of mouth panting as if you are out of breath and say h,h,h
r Pretend to be a puppy holding a piece of rag, shaking head from side to say saying rrrrr
m Rub tummy as if seeing tasty food and say mmmmm
d Beat hands up and down as if playing a drum and say d,d,d
g Spiral hand down, as if water is going down a drain and say g,g,g
o Pretend to turn light switch on and off and say o,o,o,o
u Pretend to be putting up an umbrella and say u,u,u
l Pretend to lick a lollipop and say l l l l
f Let hands gently come together as if toy fish deflating and say f f f f
b Pretend to hit a ball with a bat and say b b b
ai Cup hand over ear and say ai,ai,ai
j Pretend to wobble like a bowl of jelly
oa Bring hand to mouth as if you have done something wrong and say oh!
ie Stand to attention and salute ie ie
ee or Put hands on head as if ears on a donkey and say eeyore, eeyore
z Put arms out at sides and pretend to be a bee, saying zzzzz
w Blow on to open hand, as if you are the wind, saying wh, wh, wh
ng Imagine you are a weightlifter, and pretend to lift a heavy weight above your head and say ng,ng
v Pretend to be holding the steering wheel of a van and say vvv
oo oo Move head back and forth as if it is a cuckoo in a clock
y Pretend to be eating a yogurt and say y,y,y
x Pretend to take x ray of someone with an x ray gun and say ks ks
ch Move arms at sides as if you are a train and say ch, ch, ch
sh Place index finger over lips and say sh sh sh
th Pretend to be naughty clowns and stick tongue out a little for th sound
th Stick tongue out further for thumb
qu Make a duck’s beak with your hands and say qu qu qu
ou Pretend your finger is a needle and prick thumb saying ou ou ou
oi Cup hands around mouth and shout to another boat saying oi!
ue Point to people around you and say you, you, you
er Roll hands over each other like a mixer and say erererer
ar Open mouth wide and say ah
Glossary of terms
Decoding: Interpreting the symbols on paper which represent sounds- Reading!
Encoding: Using symbols as marks on paper to communicate what we want to say- Writing!
Phonemes: Basic sounds from which speech is composed For example, ‘sprout’ can be separated into five Phonemes- s/p/r/ou/t
There are about 44 phonemes in common use in speaking English
Graphemes: These are the written codes for the basic sounds. Graphemes can be one or more letters but they represent one phoneme, ‘ie’ can be represented by
Blending: Saying sounds smoothly together to hear a word- Reading.
Segmenting: Saying a word and hearing individual sounds- Spelling.
Tricky words: sets of high frequency words to build a child’s vocabulary